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AI/Chat GPT --Students: Home



ChatGPT and Artificial Intelligence are rapidly evolving fields.  Although the Donald K.C. North Library strives to keep information current it cannot assume any liability for the accuracy, completeness, or currency of the information presented. 

Additionally, examples of content from ChatGPT are included for instructional purposes with the provisos and cautions found elsewhere in this guide.

The links and articles included in this guide should not be construed as an endorsement by the Library.

AI Haulluciantions


               Images generated by IMage Creator by Designer via Bing.

"Hallucinations” refers to the AI outputting content that is silly, overly creative, irrelevant, fabricated and/or flat-out false responses.   

While our human response might be to ascribe some sort of malicious malevolent mean machine machinations, such constructions are the result of pattern-seeking 1s and 0s scurrying through the  neural network’s matrix of interactions with an ever changing amalgam of sources, weights, and biases knocking around in billions of parameters, jousting with incomplete or incorrect training or data, lack of real-world experience

Hallucinations are particularly troublesome in making up of mixing up citations for research papers.  If you use an AI system to research topics the old adage of trust but verify is particularly good advice!

How to Stop ChatGPT from Hallucinating and Making ...

AI Models Ranked By Hallucinations: ChatGPT is Best,

In Defense of AI Hallucinations

The Dummy's Guide to ChatGPT hallucinations and prompting.


ChatGPT & Bias

Is ChatGPT biased?
The model is skewed towards Western views and performs best in English.” (From the source)

Is ChatGPT Biased? A Review

 “While biases can be of various types, our work focuses on addressing biases related to Race, Gender, Religious Affiliation, Political Ideology and Fairness. We try to understand how ChatGPT responds in scenarios corresponding to these biases prevalent in the real world.” (From the source)

Everything You Need to Know About ChatGPT Bias

 “The natural language processing model used by ChatGPT has a problem with gender and racial biases.” (From the source)

Uncovering The Different Types Of ChatGPT Bias

Problematic forms of bias make ChatGPT’s output untrustworthy. And while it’s easy to clean up offensive content, it’s much harder to clean up things that are just plain wrong.” (From the source)

Real-life Object Lesson
I used Bing's Image Creator from Designer to generate the robot graphics on this LibGuide.  Other than some green robots, all the rest were  white, silver, grey, or otherwise lightly colored.  No brown robots, no red robots, no yellow robots, no black robots.  I contacted Bing support about this lack of robot diversity and await their reply.  I will share their response....


ChatGPT & Ethics beyond Academic Integrity

The ethics of ChatGPT 
“Overall, the analysis demonstrates that applying established ethics of technology methodologies can produce a rigorous, comprehensive foundation to guide discourse and action around impactful emerging technologies like ChatGPT.” (From the source)

AI Ethicist Views On ChatGPT

 “Despite the excitement on generative AI, there are prickly issues to resolve, especially in producing toxic content, surfacing up biases on women, and in particular women of color, copyright infringement, labour market shifts we are not ready to handle are all top of mind issues.” (From the source) 

Social scientists must address ChatGPT's ethical challenges

“Provides recommendations in five areas for ethical use of the technology: transparency, fact-checking, authorship, anti-plagiarism, and inclusion and social justice.” (From the source)

5 Ethics Issues for ChatGPT and Design
“As more and more artificial intelligence is entering into the world, more and more emotional intelligence must enter into leadership.” (From the source)

ChatGPT & Legal Concerns

What Are the Legal Implications of ChatGPT? 
 “The surging popularity of these tools has led to concerns about the implications of their development and use.” (From the source) 

The Implications of ChatGPT for Legal Services and Society
“The disruptions from AI’s rapid development are no longer in the distant future. They have arrived, and this document offers a small taste of what lies ahead.” (From the source)

6 Legal Considerations When Using ChatGPT For Content
“Let’s look at six ways ChatGPT can land you in a sticky legal situation.” (From the source)

ChatGPT Extensions & Plugins

There are a number of ChatGPT extensions and plugin.  The following are popular and presented in no particular order.  Annotations are from the site itself.

ChatGPT for Google
A browser extension to display ChatGPT (GPT4, GPT3.5), Claude, and Bard responses alongside Google, Baidu, Bing, DuckDuckGo, and more

Merlin AI
All-in-One AI extension to Write, Summarize, Code &Play

Superpower ChatGPT
Superpower ChatGPT Chrome Extension (Folders, Search, GPT Store, Image Gallery, Custom Instruction Profiles, and more)

Enable web access and one-click prompts in ChatGPT and display AI responses next to search results

YouTube Summary with ChatGPT & Claude
A browser extension that leverages ChatGPT and Claude to provide concise and informative summaries of YouTube videos

ChatGPT Writer
Write emails & messages, fix grammar mistakes, rephrase text, change writing tone, summarize text, and much more using ChatGPT AI. Works on all sites.

Free voice-activated chat application. Promptheus - Converse with ChatGPT is a proprietary software bundle meant to be used in conjunction with the ChatGPT

ReaderGPT offers webpage summary while allowing change of ChatGPT prompts for wider use cases. Some example use cases include summary within 100 words

The ShareGPT API is a REST-styled API that allows you to write and read conversations from our database, exposed as HTTP endpoints.

Speak ChatGPT 
Speak is the first & only app that lets you get real conversational practice without needing a live tutor on the other end.

The Wolfram Plugin for ChatGPT
Wolfram makes ChatGPT smarter by giving it access to powerful computation, accurate math, curated knowledge, real-time data and visualization through Wolfram|Alpha and Wolfram Language.

Instantly connect ChatGPT with the apps you use everyday. ChatGPT integrates with 6000 other apps on Zapier - it's the easiest way to automate your work.

AIPRM is your cheat code for ChatGPT. Adds a list of curated prompt templates and advanced features.

Prompt Genius
Crafts prompts and provides answers using GPT-4, DALL-E 3, code interpreter, or Bing. Begin your query with "I need a prompt for" and then describe what want.

Chatsonic is like ChatGPT but built with GPT-4 superpowers addressing the limitations of ChatGPT. Get real-time answers on current events, trending topics, and more with this exclusive ChatGPT-like chrome extension.

Diagrams: Show Me
Create Diagrams, Architecture Visualisations, Flow-Charts, Mind Maps, Schemes and more. Great for coding, presentations and code documentation.

Engage AI
Engage AI creates comments for you to engage prospects on LinkedIn at scale. Save hours writing comments to attract your prospects and achieve faster results

Save and share ChatGPT snippets as beautiful images, searchable PDFs, and text files. 
Fireflies uses generative AI to bring ChatGPT to meetings. Generate transcripts and smart summaries for Zoom, Google Meet, and Microsoft Teams.

GPT for Excel, Word, Google Sheets and Docs
Summarize notes and meetings GPT extension for Google Docs and MS Word. GPT for Word and GPT for Docs can help you save time by automatically creating summaries

Instacart Plugin for ChatGPT
The Instacart ChatGPT plugin will act as an add-on to ChatGPT and will combine ChatGPT's capabilities with Instacart's own AI technology

ChatGPT will act as a virtual travel assistant, allowing for more conversational interactions with KAYAK's search engine. 

Link Reader
This tool is adept at interpreting content from a wide array of link types, including web pages, PDF documents, PowerPoint presentations, images, Word files and more.

With the assistance of the OpenTable plugin, ChatGPT provides a simple and quick way to reserve tables at your favorite restaurants. 

Enables searching of YouTube transcripts, financial data sources Google Search results, and more

Get reliable information everywhere, explore the web while reading and receive instant answers to your most complex questions.

Get Started with ChatGPT

To create an account: Get started

To log into your existing account:: Log in

ChatGPT Plus (A  $20/month, subscription for priority and faster access as well as preferred access to new and improved features): Subscribe

What is ChatGPT

What/whom better to ask, than ChatGPT itself:

This definition does not provide much detail.  Here are some things ChatGPT did not tell us:

  • It launched in November 2022.
  • ChatGPT stands for Chat Generative Pre-trained Transformer.
  • It is built on OpenAI's GPT-3 family of Large Language Models (LLM).
  • It will answer follow-up questions, admit its mistakes, challenge users’ assumptions, and reject inappropriate requests.

Bloom's Taxonomy & ChatGPT

The Library Dude sez…
ChatGPT is not sentient, at least not yet today. It is interesting, nevertheless, to see how ChatGPT measures up to Bloom or potentially other hierarchies of learning objectives such as Understanding by Design.  The conclusions presented below are totally unscientific and should not be considered to be valid nor reliable.  The conclusions stem from this author’s experience whiling away endless hours with ChatGPT and are his alone.  To discuss this further send an email.





Garbage In--Garbage Out
What you get out of ChatGPT (or any other program) is only as good as the data you enter.


Good prompts will yield good results.

Tips for Effective Prompts
“Talk” nicely to ChatGPT, treat it as if you are friends.

Know what you want.  ChatGPT will do its best to help you, but you have to know what you want.  The more general your request, the less specific the result.  

For complex requests you may want to create a rubric or checklist to see how well ChatGPT is doing.
Frame your request and provide context.  Help ChatGPT to know what you want.
You may need to ask your question in different ways or explain it so ChatGPT understands

ChatGPT responds well to specific commands. These include:
•    Number of pages, sentences, and/or words
•    Style of writing, e.g. term paper, blog, news story, etc.
•    Level of writing, e.g. academic, a certain Lexile score, a children’s story, etc.
•    Summarize, paraphrase and/or outline
•    Creative style, e.g. haiku, satirical, children’s story, etc.
•    Tone, e.g. formal, humorous, informative, etc.    
•    Assuming a particular point of view, perspective of profession, e.g. advocate, opposition, a minor, or a miner, etc.  (ChatGPT has built in bumpers to keep it from advocating unethical, illegal, and/or immoral topics.    

Have fun; play, try new things, explore, experiment!

There a number of mnemonic acronyms out there to help in developing effective prompts.

ChatGPT (upon request) provided a couple original rhyming mnemonics using acronyms to write effective ChatGPT: prompts.

SPARK Prompt:

  • Specific Spark: Illuminate details, make your mark.
  • Playful Purpose: Request joy in prompts, not just surface.
  • Analogies in Arcs: Use comparisons, ignite sparks.
  • Reflective Art: Encourage deep thinking from the heart.
  • Key Points Gleam: Shine light on what the prompt's theme.

CHANT Prompt:

  • Clear Chant: Make your prompt crystal and enchant.
  • Harbor Ideas: Encourage a space for diverse ideas.
  • Artful Nudge: Prompt with a creative, artful judge.
  • Nuance Dance: Address subtleties in a nuanced trance.
  • Tune into Themes: Like a chant, follow thematic streams.


AI Research Assistants


An AI research assistant automates certain aspects of the research process While capabilities and capacities vary from platform to platform, these assistants fulfill one or more of the following tasks.  Their advantage is in their ability to streamline some aspects of the research process, enhance efficiency, offer insights, and assist with authoring the findings.

The role and capabilities of AI research assistants can vary, but they generally aim to enhance efficiency, provide valuable insights, and streamline tasks for researchers. Here's an overview of what AI research assistants can do:

  1. Literature Review:
    • AI research assistants can absorb and analyze vast amounts of academic literature.  They also provide current awareness services, identify significant studies, summarize key pieces of research, and identify trends within the field. 
    • Literature reviews are limited to publicly available databases and resources such as Google Scholar, government databases, news archives, open access sources, as well as some data repositories
  2. Data Analysis:
    • AI research assistants can process and analyze large quantitative as well as qualitative data sets. They may quickly perform statistical analysis, identify trends and patterns and even generate interpretations, insights, and suggest conclusions. 
    •  Assistants are capable of conducting descriptive and inferential statistics, predictive modeling, clustering analysis, dimensional reductions, text analysis, time series analysis network analysis, image and video analysis, and even simulations and optimizations
  3. Information Retrieval:
    • AI research assistance can search databases, archives, the Internet and other sources to identify, locate, and retrieve pertinent articles or papers related to a researcher’s field of interest/
  4. Natural Language Processing (NLP):
    • Using NLP, research assistants can interact with human researchers, summarize research findings, create reports, and aid in writing research reports or articles.

  1. Task Automation:
    • AI research assistants are also helpful in automating dull and time consuming tasks.
    • They can take over such tasks as literature reviews, data collection, data preprocessing, statistical analysis, experimental designs, task coordination, and collaboration, as well as documentation and reporting
  2. Experiment Design:
    • In a growing number of fields, AI assistants can help design experiments, determine variables, suggest methodologies, and create hypotheses based on its current knowledge bank.  AI research assistants seem to be adept at designing experiments in the STEM fields. However, these assistants are gaining more experience in the social sciences notably psychology and behavioral research.
  3. Collaboration and Communication:
    • To some degree, research assistance are able to facilitate collaboration, , coordination, cooperation, and communication By coordinating tasks and providing a platform for sharing information, results, updates, and ideas.

This is a continually evolving field in which advances in machine learning and natural language understanding improve the capabilities of these assistants over the course of time.

Advantages of ChatGPT and AI

ChatCPT and other AI is good for :

  • Brainstorming ideas
  • Identifying terms for searching in library databases.
  • Generating topics suggestions (other than current events)
  • Explaining information in ways that are easily understood to understand.
  • Summarizing, paraphrase, and outlining
  • Answering questions without making you feel stupid.
  • Translating text to different languages (not completely fluent in every language)
  • Debugging computing code.
  • Aiding students with learning disabilities.
  • Assisting students whose second language is English.
  • Drawing out important ideas from lecture notes.

Business Functions
In business ChatCPT and other AI are good for :

  • Being available 24/7
  • Automating repetitive tasks
  • Handling multiple tasks in real time.
  • Answering questions correctly and consistently.
  • Enhancing customer satisfaction and engagement.
  • Enhancing and improving Search Engine Optimization (SEO).
  • Optimizing a website for search engines (SEO).
  • Learning to improve
  • Continually improving.
  • Providing support in multiple languages
  • Generating content for specific purposes and audiences

Challenges of ChatGPT and AI

  • Untrustworthy Information
  • Lack of Academic Integrity
  • Biased Responses
  • Limited Knowledge, Particualry for Recent Events
  • Does Not Always Understand Context
  • Lack Of Emotional Intelligence (EI)
  • Privacy Concerns
  • Initial Setup Complexity
  • Ethical And Legal Concerns

ChatGPT Video Tutorials


Profile Photo
Daniel Liestman

Citing ChatGPT in APA7


For Example:

When prompted with "What are the common elements of Yakama and Cherokee cosmology? The ChatGPT-gnerated text noted that while the two tribes each have their own cosmological beleifs and cultures there are variations to be found among tribal members (OpenAI, 2024).

  • Parenthetical citation: (OpenAI, 2024)
  • Narrative citation: OpenAI (2024)


OpenAI. (2024). ChatGPT (January 18 version) [Large language model].



McAdoo, T. (2023, April 7). APA Style.

Researching and Writing AI

Summarizing Tools

Elicit’s existing library comprises over 126 million papers accessible through Semantic Scholar. We plan to incorporate additional collections like PubMed in the near future. Elicit encompasses content from various sources, including arXiv, bioRxiv, preprints of economics papers, and more. It exclusively consists of academic papers, aligning with its purpose of discovering and analyzing academic literature (From the website).

ChatPDF is an online summarization service. The ai will provide a brief abstract of any PDF document. Not only will it provide a document summary but it compare content across multiple documents. The smart Q&A response to questions about the content of the document. In addition, side by side translation of documents is also available. The user must submit a PDF document to initiate the search feature.

Citation Tracking Search Engines

Consensus operates as a search engine utilizing language models to uncover and synthesize insights from academic research papers. Although not a chatbot, Consensus employs similar technology to enhance the efficiency of the research process. The platform draws its current source material from the Semantic Scholar database, encompassing over 200 million papers across various scientific domains (From the website).

Semantic Scholar
Semantic Scholar provides free, AI-driven search and discovery tools for more than 200 million open resource academic papers.  Search results include ai-generated abstracts. The system identifies “Highly Influential Citations “ to identify seminal works  The “Ask This Paper” feature prompts questions to ask about the paper or allows the researcher to enter their own query (From the website).

A service for aggregating and analyzing academic papers.  Sinapse extracts information on related content from articles, papers, patents, etc. Other features include a current awareness service, linking to like minded researchers, seeing funding patterns, and comparing research capabilities as well as measuring research impact. Advanced algorithms are employed two cents new research trends as well as rising researchers based on their publications and other scholarly activity.

Perplexity AI is an AI-powered search engine and chatbot utilizing advanced technologies like natural language processing and machine learning. It employs OpenAI's GPT technology to deliver accurate and comprehensive answers in real-time, focusing on providing up-to-date information on various topics. Users can interact with it in natural language, ask follow-up questions for more insights, and receive responses based on the context of previous interactions. Perplexity AI stands out for its ability to handle large datasets, understand context, and utilize cutting-edge machine learning techniques in providing coherent responses.

Writing & Paraphrasing Tools

Scite offers a platform for researchers and students to discover and understand research articles through Smart Citation which provide the context of the citation and describe whether the article supports or contrasts with the cited claim. The platform is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Users can explore pre-built journal dashboards, build and manage collections of articles, and receive aggregate insights and notifications (From the website).

Trinka is designed for academic writers in general and is STEM-field authors in particular.  The software targets errors unique to academic writing including advanced English grammar errors to scientific tone and style, syntax, etc. 

A multilingual bot with eight predefined modes and customization options this paraphraser appears to be particularly useful for those writing in a second language.  It is also iterative to generate satisfactory results.

AI Detection

A Systematic Review of the Artificial Intelligence Implications in Shaping the Future of Higher Education
“This study is focused on the analysis of imagined futures of higher education in the age of artificial intelligence.” (From the site)

How To Check If Something Was Written with AI (ChatGPT)
“While AI writing detection tools aren't 100% accurate, there are a few combined methods you could use to help decipher the origin of what you're reading. .” (From the site)

Student Blog: Academic Integrity: The Influence of Artificial Intelligence at Boston College
In the world we live in today, one where technology seems to be advancing by the second, the idea of academic integrity has certainly been an evolving issue in college .” (From the site)


This 22-year-old is trying to save us from ChatGPT before it changes writing forever

How to Detect OpenAI’s ChatGPT Output
“How to detect if the student used OpenAI’s ChatGPT to complete an assignment.” (From the site)

Anti-Cheating Education Software Braces for AI Chatbots
My initial reaction was to marvel at its crisp answers and conversational lucidity. My second thought, as the father of high-school kids, was to say a small prayer for the teachers of the world.” (From the site)

Cheaters beware: ChatGPT maker releases AI detection tool

“The maker of ChatGPT is trying to curb its reputation as a freewheeling cheating machine with a new tool that can help teachers detect if a student or artificial intelligence wrote that homework.” (From the site)

Detection Tools

The following sites are listed without any form of endorsement:

Accessible Open AI and Assistive Technology

Web Design
A no-code web accessibility platform, designed for to create user-friendly experiences that meet with accessibility standards.

For the Visually Impaired
Kurzweil Chrome Extension
Converts text-based content into an auditory format, making it easier for the user to comprehend and engage with the content.

Transforms text including PDF files, and over 20 other formats--into audible speech.

For those with ADHD
 Freedom may support impulse control by blocking websites such as social media while working


Image Credit

All images save the "Library Dude" Avatar from Meta are created by Image Creator from Microsoft Designer.

CC License


This license enables reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The license allows for commercial use. CC BY includes the following elements:

 BY: credit must be given to the creator.